Sulfonamides Toxic Level in Laying ...

Sulfonamides Toxic Level in Laying Hens

 

Sulfonamides Toxic Level in Laying Hens

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

Egg drop

  • Egg production declines rapidly
  • A marked decrease in egg production
  • The toxic level of sulfonamides is close to the therapeutic level in poultry

Shell quality

  • A rapid decline in shell pigmentation is common following the ingestion of sulfonamides drugs by the hen.
  • Pale or loss of colour in brown-shelled eggs
  • Thin-shelled and soft-shelled or porous eggs
  • Egg specific gravity score lower (should be above 1.080 (1.068 thinnest shells))
  • Ungraded or second's eggs increased

Internal Quality

  • Blood and or Meat spots may increase
  • Sulfa toxicosis is due to inducing vitamin K deficiency

Diet or Feed Changes

  • Recent medication in feed
  • Recent medication in the drinking water

 

Sulfonamides Toxic Level in Laying Hens show, exhibit, or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

ALWAYS

NEVER

SOMETIMES

Egg drop

  •  

 

 

Egg production declines rapidly

  •  

 

 

Egg production drops gradually

 

  •  

 

Mortality above the standard

 

  •  

 

Visibly sick birds

 

  •  

 

Flock behaviour activity change

 

  •  

 

Droppings abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Respiratory abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Neurological Nervous

 

  •  

 

Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move

 

  •  

 

Eyes abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Head: Comb Wattles Face Nostrils Sinuses Mount Beak Earlobes (except eyes)

 

  •  

 

Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression

 

  •  

 

Feathers abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Feed Consumption Changes

 

  •  

 

Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)

 

 

  • *

Shell quality

  •  

 

 

Internal Egg quality

 

 

  • *

*Medication in feed or water

*Sometimes has not been observed or measured the shell quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed or measured the internal egg quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed the Body parts abnormalities yet or depend on the course time of the disease

 

 

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 
Causing Agents
Toxicosis is due to inducing vitamin K deficiency with severe anemia, widespread hemorrhages, jaundice and pale bone marrow and pale bone marrow being typical findings
Affected Systems/Organs
Reproductive, Circulatory
Spread
Do not apply
Mainly Affects
Egg Production. and Egg quality
Solution
Vitamin K treatment in water Withdraw the sulfonamides as soon as possible.
Suggested Actions
  • Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
  • Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
  • Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
  • Veterinary intervention is recommended

Impact on Egg quality

3

Impact on Liveability

0


Impact on Production

4

Overall Economic Impact

3



  1. Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. Page 1233
  2. David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 1289
  3. Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition. 555
  4. Paul McMullin. 2004. A Pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
  5. Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.
  6. Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009.  Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.
  7. Gail Damerow 1994. The Chicken Health Handbook.

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