Happenings / Clinical Signs
Visibly sick birds
- Few visibly sick birds
- Affected birds keep their eyelids closed
- They rub their heads and eyelids against their wings
- The cornea has a gray cloudy appearance and may be ulcerated
- Edema and hyperemia may be present in the conjunctiva
- The condition is generally bilateral
- Affected birds do not eat and become emaciated
Feed Consumption Changes
- Feed intake reduced
- Egg production declines gradually
- Drop in egg production may be affected and depends on the severity of the exposure to ammonia fumes
Ammonia burn describes a conjunctivitis in poultry caused by exposure to ammonia fumes resulting from unsanitary conditions.
Clinical signs include photophobia, excessive lacrimation, and respiratory congestion. Affected birds keep their eyelids closed and are reluctant to move. They may rub their heads and eyelids against their wigs. The cornea has a gray cloudy appearance and may be ulcerated. Edema and hyperemia may be present in the conjunctiva but often may not be very obvious. The condition is generally bilateral and affects birds which do not eat and become emaciated.
- Causing Agents
- Toxicity, due to high concentrations of atmospheric ammonia in enclousure or litter
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Respiratory System: Eyes (even low but constant exposure to 10-20 ppm ammonia is enough to cause some damage to the respiratory tract)
- Mainly Affects
- Performance: It could act as trigger for respiratory tract infections/complications
- Appropriate environmental control. Prevention of the condition is based on proper ventilation and litter management. The ammonia fumes are formed in wet litter. Feed additives and ammonia reducing agents
- Suggested Actions
- Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
- Can be dealt with in house
- Technical assistance recommended
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
Y.M. Saif. 2008. Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page 1178
David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 1258
Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.
Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.