Cage Layer Fatigue, Osteoporosis in Laying Hens
Happenings / Clinical Signs
Osteoporosisis more severe between 25 and 50 weeks of age
Visibly sick birds
- Birds are unable to stand, but willing to eat and drink
- Hens with cage layer fatigue have trouble standing and typically crouch or lie at the back of the cage.
- Birds often are alert
- Paralysis in severe cases
Lameness or unusual movement incoordination ataxia
- Paralysis due to the collapse of spinal bone (severe cases)
Neck wings breast abdomen shanks legs hocks feet joints vent skin
- Bone become so thin that spontaneous fractures may occur, especially in the vertebrae, tibia and femur
- Fractures of ischium, humerus, and keel bones show the highest incidence, follow by fractures of pubis, ulna, coracoid and femur
- Bone fragility is responsible of up to 30% of fractures in commercial flocks during their life
- Low mortality or increases gradually
- Some birds have an egg in the oviduct and have die acutely
- Poor body fleshing condition
- Some birds die from dehydration (unable to reach the drinkers)
- Some birds have an egg in the oviduct and have die acutely (good body fleshing condition)
- May increase the incidence of thin-shelled eggs
- Thin-shelled and soft-shelled or porous eggs
- Calcium and phosphorus deficiency result in reduced egg production and thin-shelled eggs
Diet or Feed Changes
- Recent Feed delivery
- Recent formulation / diet
Clinical signs of Cage Layer Fatigue are exclusively seen in layers housed in cages. The flock has reach or passed their peak production and egg size is at its maximun. The rate of lay in affected hens is above the average production of the flock. The hens appear normal but are unable to stand up and are reluctant to reach feed and water. In affected hens egg production remain normal, with little or no deterioration of shell quality. Permanent parakysis may result from fracture of spinal vertebrae, causing pressure on the spinal column. Death occurs in the absence of corrective meansures.
Osteoporosis normally consists of loss in bone quality which predisposes the birds to fractures in a rage of bones of the body, ischium, humerus, and keel bones show the highest incidence of fractures, followed by fractures of pubis, ulna, coracoid and femur.
Osteoporosis was first described in cage laying hens that had brittle bones and were unable to stand, but willing to eat and drink. The condition was then called "cage layer fatigue". They often are alert, but later become depressed and die from dehydration. Osteoporosis is more severe between 25 and 50 weeks of age.
Bone fragility is responsible for up to 30% of fractures of commercial flocks during their life, and its incidence may reach 90% during catching, transporting, and processing.
- Causing Agents
- Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) deficiency or imbalance in the diet. The utilization of calcium and phosphorous depends on presence of adequate amount of vitamin D in the diet It is defined as a decrease of normal mineralization of structural bone, resulting in increased fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Confinement of laying hens in cages has been show to reduce bone strength significantly. The "Cage Layer Fatigue" syndrome apparently is not due to a simple deficiency of calcium but involves other etiologic factors not yet identified. Feed formulated to meet the calcium requirements of average production but not the maximum production.
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Reproductive, locomotor systems and liveability.
- Mainly Affects
- Egg production and egg quality
- Supplementation of vitamin D and implementation of proper Ca and P levels and ratio in the diet. The availability of phosphorous can be increased by inclusion in the diet of phytase of microbial or plant origin.
- Suggested Actions
- Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
- Technical assistance recommended
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
- Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
- Veterinary intervention is recommended
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
Y.M. Saif. 2008. Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page 1137,1157
David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 1222,1240
Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition. page 484
Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition. page 218