Citrinin Mycotoxicosis in Laying Hens
Citrinin is nephrotoxic and causes diuresis in poultry. Laying hens fed citrinin-appended diets develop wet droppings, but egg production and body weight were not affected. Citrinin fed to laying hens for 6 weeks is distributed to skeletal muscle, egg yolk, and egg white.
Observed Clinical Signs Happenings
- Watery fecal droppings
- Wet droppings
Diet or Feed Changes
- Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)
Citrinin Mycotoxicosis in Laying Hens DOES NOT exhibit or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:
- Egg drop
- Mortality above the standard
- Visibly sick birds
- Flock behaviour activity change
- Respiratory abnormalities
- Neurological Nervous
- Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, ataxia
- Eyes abnormalities
- Head, Comb, Wattles, Face, Nostrils, Sinuses, Mount, Beak, Earlobes, abnormalities (except eyes)
- Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression
- Feathers abnormalities
- Feed Consumption Changes
- Shell quality defects
- Internal Egg defects
- Causing Agents
- Penicillium and Aspergillus produce citrinin toxin, a natural contaminant of corn, rice, and other cereal grains. Penicillium citrinum occurs mainly in Canada and northern Europe, suggesting toxigenic Penicillium may have a competitive advantage in cooler climates. Penicillium citrinum in 1931 was recognized antibacterial and antibiotic properties preceded the discovery of nephrotoxicity. Citrinin is heat sensitive.
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Urinary System Kidney
- Mainly Affects
- Wet Litter/Manure. Faeces. Wet droppings.
- Removal of the citrinin toxin allows a return to normal renal function. Toxic feed should be removed and replace with unadulterated feed. Detoxification using mycotoxin-binders holds promise for using contaminated of feedstuff by fungi capable of producing mycotoxin is quite common. Detoxification using mycotoxin-binder holds promise for using contaminated feeds while preventing intoxication. Inorganic mineral absorbents or binders including various clays (bentonite clay), soils, and zeolites. Zeolites reduce the effects of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid. Addition of and organic aluminosilicate adsorbent to the feed.
- Suggested Actions
- Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. pag 1210
David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 1280
Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.
Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.