Layer pullets suffering outbreaks at 7-20 weeks of age may suffer mortality, loss of uniformity and decreased egg-laying potential.
Infections with mid-intestinal species of coccidia is a major predisposing factor for Clostridium sp. infection. Colonization of small intestine by Eimeria sp. may lead to intestinal mucosal damage which mat then, in turn, provide natural substrates (plasma proteins) required for Clostridium sp. proliferation.
E.necatrix along with E.tenella are the most pathogenic of the chicken coccidia. Droppings of infected birds often contain blood, fluid and mucus. Some birds may show ruffled feathers.
- Causing Agents
- Protozoal Infection parasites . E. necatrix. Small parasite found in the intestine and caecum
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Intestinal tract. Small Intestine (middle).
- Infective agent is found in litter, droppings and contaminated objects. Spread is primarily via the faecal-oral route
- Mainly Affects
- Liveability and Egg production Potential. The extent of the disease is proportional to the amount of infective agent ingested
- Adequate Pullet coccidial immunization program. Anticoccidial drugs. Good hygiene practices, vaccinations, coccidiostat in feed or water.
- Suggested Actions
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
- Can be managed with vaccination programs
- Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
- Veterinary intervention is recommended
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
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Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.
Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.