Aflatoxicosis in Laying Hens

Aflatoxicosis in Laying Hens

Aflatoxicosis in Laying Hens

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

Egg Drop

  • Drops in egg production
  • Egg production declines gradually
  • Once decreased, egg production may require several weeks to return

Feed Consumption Changes

  • Feed intake reduced or refusal
  • An indirect effect of intoxication (reduced feed intake)

Diet or Feed Changes

  • Recent Feed delivery
  • Recent formulation /diet
  • Other silo or improper storage
  • Another brand

Shell defects

  • Egg size decreased or reduced

Internal Egg contents defects

  • Blood and meat spots in egg contents
  • Pale yolks or yolk colour decreased or yolk discolouration
  • Yolk colour Abnormal

Aflatoxicosis in Laying Hens show, exhibit, or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

ALWAYS

NEVER

SOMETIMES

Egg drop

  •  

 

 

Egg production declines rapidly

 

  •  

 

Egg production drops gradually

  •  

 

 

Mortality above the standard

 

  •  

 

Visibly sick birds

 

  •  

 

Flock behaviour activity change

 

  •  

 

Droppings abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Respiratory abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Neurological Nervous

 

  •  

 

Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move

 

  •  

 

Eyes abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Head: Comb Wattles Face Nostrils Sinuses Mount Beak Earlobes (except eyes)

 

  •  

 

Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression

 

  •  

 

Feathers abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Feed Consumption Changes

  •  

 

  • *

Feed intake increased

 

  •  

 

Feed intake reduced or refusal

  •  

 

  • *

Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)

  •  

 

  • *

Shell quality

  •  

 

  • *

Internal Egg quality

  •  

 

  • *

* Sometimes has not been observed or measured the feed consumption changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed the relationship between any feed or diet changes and the observed clinical happenings in a flock or several other flock or different farms

* Sometimes has not been observed or measured the shell quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed or measured the interior egg quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

Causing Agents
Toxins produced by molds Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and Penicillium puberulum, that are present in litter, grains or feed (especially grain or feed that has been damaged by insects, pests or weather). Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) has additive toxicity with aflatoxin and T-2 toxin (1,2)
Affected Systems/Organs
Immune system (increases susceptibility to infection). Liver and reproductive system. Hematological parameters. Reproductive system.
Spread
Consumption of affected grain, exposure to contaminated litter
Mainly Affects
Egg production, Egg Shell quality and Inner Egg quality
Solution
Careful choice and testing of feed raw materials, good grain and feed manufacturing and storage practices. Toxic feed should be removed and replace with unadulterated feed. Detoxification using mycotoxin-binders holds promise for using contaminated of feedstuff by fungi capable of producing mycotoxin is quite common. Detoxification using mycotoxin-binder holds promise for using contaminated feeds while preventing intoxication. Inorganic mineral absorbents or binders including various clays (bentonite clay), soils, and zeolites. Zeolites reduce the effects of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid. Addition of organic aluminosilicate adsorbent to the feed. Yeast cell wall-based adsorbents.
Suggested Actions
  • Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
  • Technical assistance recommended
  • Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
  • Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
  • Veterinary intervention is recommended

Impact on Egg quality

2

Impact on Liveability

0


Impact on Production

2

Overall Economic Impact

2



  1. Y.M. Saif. 2008. Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page 1207, 1211
  2. David E. Swayne. 2013.  Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 1277-1279

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