Avian Influenza Low Pathogenic (LP ...

Avian Influenza Low Pathogenic (LPAI) Moderately Virulent of any H 1-16 or N 1-9 subtype in Laying Hens

Avian Influenza Low Pathogenic (LPAI) Moderately Virulent of any H 1-16 or N 1-9 subtype in Laying Hens

Happenings / Clinical Signs

Clinical signs reflect abnormalities in the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs

High morbidity and low mortality rates are typical for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus

Egg Drop

  • Egg production declines rapidly

Mortality

  • Low mortality or increases gradually
  • low mortality rates are typical for Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus
  • Mortality rates are usually less than 5% unless accompanied by secondary pathogens

Dead birds

  • Good body fleshing condition
  • Emaciation has been reported but is infrequent because Avian Influenza is an acute, not a chronic disease

Visibly sick birds Pattern

  • Many visibly sick birds
  • Listlessness
  • Depression
  • Lethargy
  • Huddling
  • Increased broodiness

Flock behaviour activity change

  • Decreased flock mobility or activity

Droppings

  • Occasionally diarrhoea

Respiratory

  • Respiratory signs spread fast
  • Mild to severe respiratory signs
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Rales
  • Rattles
  • Mucous-to-mucopurulent nasal discharge

Eyes

  • Excessive lacrimation

Head

  • The infraorbital sinuses may be swollen
  • Mucous-to-mucopurulent nasal discharge

Feathers

  • Ruffled feathers

Feed Consumption Changes

  • Feed intake reduced  
  • Decrease water consumption

 

Shell quality

  • The last few eggs laid will have reduction in calcium deposition within the eggshells
  • Eggs may be misshapen
  • Pale or loss of colour in brown-shelled eggs
  • Thin-shelled and soft-shelled or porous eggs  (fragile)

The moderately virulent clinical group results from infection by Low Pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus of any HA or NA subtype, but also with co-infection by secondary pathogens. The mortality rates are usually less than 5% unless accompanied by secondary pathogens as well as in reproductively active hens, or severely stressed birds. Clinical signs reflect abnormalities in the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs. The most frequent signs represent infection of the respiratory tract and include mild to severe respiratory signs such as coughing, sneezing, rales, rattles, and excessive lacrimation. Egg production is decreased and increased broodiness. The generalized clinical signs including huddling, ruffled feathers, depression, decreased activity, lethargy, decreased feed and water consumption, and occasionally diarrhea.  The last few eggs laid will have reduction in calcium deposition within the eggshells. Resulting eggs may be misshapen and fragile with loss in pigmentation.

High morbidity (percentage of sick birds) and low mortality are typical. Mortality rates are usually less than 5% unless accompanied by secondary pathogens such as Pasteurella multocida or Escherichia coli.

Causing Agents
Viral infection. Avian Influenza (AI) virus, family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Influenzavirus A. LPAI ("low pathogenic avian Influenza")
Affected Systems/Organs
Respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive organs
Spread
Bird to bird, contaminated water and objects from infected birds. The virus is transmitted by direct contact between infected and susceptible birds or indirect contact through aerosol droplets or exposure to virus-contanminated fomites. The virus is excreted from the nares, mouth, conjunctiva, and cloaca of infected bird into the environment because the virus replication in the respiratory, intestinal, renal, and/or reproductive organs.
Mainly Affects
Liveability and egg production
Solution
Biosecurity and hygiene programs and an 'All-in/All-out' approach to production. Vaccination with Inactivated H5 and H7 vaccine and a fowl pox-AI hemagglutinin (H5) recombinant vaccine (rFP-AI-H5).
Suggested Actions
  • Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
  • Can be managed with vaccination programs
  • Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
  • Veterinary intervention is recommended
  • This is a notifiable disease, veterinary intervention is essential. It is advisable that you run DTECT again to ensure you have answered all the questions correctly. If you suspect that you may have this disease please contact your local authorities immediately.

Impact on Egg quality

0

Impact on Liveability

2


Impact on Production

3

Overall Economic Impact

4



Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page 167

David E. Swayne. 2013.  Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 196

Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.

Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.

Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.

Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009.  Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.

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