Essential Amino Acids Marginal Defi ...

Essential Amino Acids Marginal Deficiencies in Diet of Laying Hens

Essential Amino Acids Marginal Deficiencies in Diet of Laying Hens

Unlike severe deficiencies, marginal amino acid deficiencies often result in increased food intake, or the maintenance of food intake, with concomitant reduction of body weight gain and lean tissue growth resulting in increased body fat. (1, 2)

Some amino acids have additional effects. Methionine deficiency may exacerbate choline or vitamin B12 deficiencies. Lysine deficiency causes impaired pigmentation. Arginine deficiency tends to cause the wing feathers to curl upward, giving a distinct ruffled feathers appearance. Several others amino acids have been reported to affect feather growth and structure. (1, 2)

Low protein in ration the watery white or White Haugh unit score decreased (score should be 70 poor 50). (3)

Practical ingredients usually are limiting in one or more amino acids. It is often cost effective to supply the limiting amino acids in the form of synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and methionine. Other amino acids such as threonine, tryptophan, arginine, and isoleucine can become limiting when unusual protein sources are used or when the dietary protein level is reduced. Diets that are devoid of animal by-products are often fortified heavily with feed-grade amino acids. (1, 2)

In contrast to the specific signs that may occur as a result of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, the effects of essential amino acid deficiencies are nonspecific: reduced growth, reduced feed consumption, decreased egg production and egg size, and loss of body weight in adult hens. The decreased of feed intake occurs within hours of consumption of a deficient diet and is due to a distortion in plasma and tissue amino acid levels. (1, 2)

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression

  • Weight depression or reduction of body weight gain
  • Lean tissue growth resulting in increased body fat

Feathers abnormalities

  • Dull feather condition
  • Poor feathering condition or uneven feathers
  • Poor feather cover or feather loss

Feed Consumption

  • Feed intake increased

Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)

  • Practical ingredients usually are limiting in one or more amino acids. It is often cost effective to supply the limiting amino acids in the form of synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and methionine

Shell quality

  • Egg size reduced or decreased

Internal Egg quality

  • Watery white (Albumen) or White Haugh unit score decreased (score should be 70 poor 50). (3)
  • Albumen  index decreased

Essential Amino Acids Marginal Deficiencies in Diet of Laying Hens DOES NOT show or exhibit or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:

  • Egg drop
  • Mortality above the standard
  • Visibly sick birds
  • Flock behaviour activity change
  • Droppings abnormalities
  • Respiratory abnormalities
  • Neurological Nervous
  • Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move
  • Eyes abnormalities
  • Head, Comb, Wattles, Face, Nostrils, Sinuses, Mount, Beak, Earlobes, abnormalities (except eyes)
  • Feed intake reduced or refusal
Causing Agents
Limiting amino acids in the diet with very little margin of safety as a result of formulated diet using a "least cost" approach
Affected Systems/Organs
Reproductive System
Spread
N/A
Mainly Affects
Egg Production, Egg Quality, Body Weight, Performance
Solution
Adequate essential amino acid requirements in the diet. Fortifying the limiting amino acids in the diet with feed grade amino acid as required.
Suggested Actions
  • Technical assistance recommended
  • Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
  • Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
  • Veterinary intervention is recommended

Impact on Egg quality

2

Impact on Liveability

0


Impact on Production

2

Overall Economic Impact

3



  1. Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page
  2. David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page
  3. Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition. page

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