Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of Laying Hens
In regions where animal proteins are not used, then necessarily high levels of soybean meal can lead to enteritis, wet litter and food pad lesions. Soybean meal is very high in potassium. (5)
High levels of dietary electrolytes also increase fecal moisture and can cause problems with wet litter. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus cause linear increases in the water intake of laying hens and linear increases in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of excreta by 9.0,12.0 and 5.6 g/kg for sodium, potassium and phosphorous, respectively. (5)
Observed Clinical Signs Happenings
- Watery diarrhea
- Fecal moisture
- Wet litter
Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression
- Maybe occur footpad lesions in Laying hens in-floor system
Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)
- Soybean meal is very high in potassium.
- Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus cause linear increases in the water intake of laying hens and linear increases in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of excreta by 9.0,12.0 and 5.6 g/kg for sodium, potassium and phosphorous, respectively
Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of Laying Hens DOES NOT show or exhibit or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:
- Egg drop
- Mortality above the standard
- Visibly sick birds
- Flock behaviour activity change
- Respiratory abnormalities
- Neurological Nervous
- Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move
- Eyes abnormalities
- Head, Comb, Wattles, Face, Nostrils, Sinuses, Mount, Beak, Earlobes, abnormalities (except eyes)
- Feathers abnormalities
- Feed Consumption Changes
- Shell quality
- Internal Egg quality
- Causing Agents
- High Levels of Potassium in the diet
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Kidney, Digestive tract. Wet Litter/Manure. Performance
- Mainly Affects
- Wet Litter/Manure. Faecal moisture
- Adequate levels in dietary potassium
- Suggested Actions
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
- Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition.
- David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition.
- Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
- Paul McMullin. 2004. A Pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
- Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition. Page 33
- Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.
- Gail Damerow 1994. The chicken Health Handbook. page