Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal Hig ...

Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of Laying Hens

Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of  Laying Hens

In regions where animal proteins are not used, then necessarily high levels of soybean meal can lead to enteritis, wet litter and food pad lesions. Soybean meal is very high in potassium. (5)

High levels of dietary electrolytes also increase fecal moisture and can cause problems with wet litter. Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus cause linear increases in the water intake of laying hens and linear increases in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of excreta by 9.0,12.0 and 5.6 g/kg for sodium, potassium and phosphorous, respectively. (5)

The moderate level of energy usually limits the inclusion of barley in most poultry diets. Additionally, the level of Beta-glucan can be problematic in terms of poor performance and wet litter or wet manure. Synthetic enzymes can be used to overcome most of the problems. (5)

Barley contains moderate levels of trypsin inhibitor, whose mode of action relates to sequestering of arginine, although by far the major problem with barley is content of Beta-glucan. (5)

Most varieties of barley contain 4—7 % of beta-glucan, although, with dry growing conditions that involve rapid maturation and early harvest, the content can increase to 12—15 % (5)

Adding synthetic beta-glucanase enzymes to diets containing more than 15—20% barley seems to resolve many of these problems, the usual outward sign of which is wet litter (5)

Wheat contains variable quantities of xylan, which is poorly digested and results in wet viscous excreta together with poor digestibility. (5)

While wheat is much higher in protein content compared to corn and provides only slightly less energy. Wheat contains about 5—8 % of pentosans, which can cause problems with digesta viscosity, leading to reduced overall diet digestibility and also wet manure. (5)

Birds do not produce adequate quantities of xylanase enzymes, and so these polymers increase the viscosity of the digesta. (5)

This problem can be overcome by using synthetic xylanase enzymes. (5)

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

Droppings

  • Wet litter/manure
  • Wet viscous excreta
  • The most notable effect will be wetter more sticky and viscous excreta (5)

Body Parts

  • Maybe occur footpad lesions in Laying hens in-floor system

Diet or Feed Changes

  • Soybean meal is very high in potassium.
  • Increasing dietary concentrations of sodium, potassium or phosphorus cause linear increases in the water intake of laying hens and linear increases in the moisture content of their excreta. Each 1 g/kg increase in dietary mineral increased the moisture content of excreta by 9.0,12.0 and 5.6 g/kg for sodium, potassium and phosphorous, respectively

Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of  Laying Hens DOES NOT show or exhibit or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:

  • Egg drop
  • Mortality above the standard
  • Visibly sick birds
  • Flock behaviour activity change
  • Respiratory abnormalities
  • Neurological Nervous
  • Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move
  • Eyes abnormalities
  • Head, Comb, Wattles, Face, Nostrils, Sinuses, Mount, Beak, Earlobes, abnormalities (except eyes)
  • Feathers abnormalities
  • Feed Consumption Changes
  • Shell quality
  • Internal Egg quality
Causing Agents
Wheat contains about 5-8 % of pentosans which cause problems with digesta viscosity, leading to reduced overall diet digestibility and also wet manure. Birds do not produce adequate quantities of xilanase enzymes, and so these polymers increased the viscosity of digesta
Affected Systems/Organs
Digestive system
Spread
N/A
Mainly Affects
Wet Litter/Manure. Faecal moisture
Solution
Adequate dietary levels of barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal
Suggested Actions
  • Technical assistance recommended
  • Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications

Impact on Egg quality

0

Impact on Liveability

0


Impact on Production

2

Overall Economic Impact

2



  1. Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition.
  2. David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition.
  3. Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
  4. Paul McMullin. 2004. A Pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
  5. Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition. Page 33
  6. Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009.  Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.
  7. Gail Damerow 1994. The chicken Health Handbook. page

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