Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of Laying Hens
The moderate level of energy usually limits the inclusion of barley in most poultry diets. Additionally, the level of Beta-glucan can be problematic in terms of poor performance and wet litter or wet manure. Synthetic enzymes can be used to overcome most of the problems. (5)
Barley contains moderate levels of trypsin inhibitor, whose mode of action relates to sequestering of arginine, although by far the major problem with barley is content of Beta-glucan. (5)
Most varieties of barley contain 4—7 % of beta-glucan, although, with dry growing conditions that involve rapid maturation and early harvest, the content can increase to 12—15 % (5)
Adding synthetic beta-glucanase enzymes to diets containing more than 15—20% barley seems to resolve many of these problems, the usual outward sign of which is wet litter (5)
Observed Clinical Signs Happenings
- Watery diarrhea
- Fecal moisture
- Wet litter
Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression
- Maybe occur footpad lesions in Laying hens in-floor system
Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)
- Most varieties of barley contain 4—7 % of beta-glucan, although, with dry growing conditions that involve rapid maturation and early harvest, the content can increase to 12—15 %
- Adding synthetic beta-glucanase enzymes to diets containing more than 15—20% barley seems to resolve many of these problems, the usual outward sign of which is wet litter
Barley or Wheat or Soybean Meal High Levels in the Diet of Laying Hens DOES NOT show or exhibit or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:
- Egg drop
- Mortality above the standard
- Visibly sick birds
- Flock behaviour activity change
- Respiratory abnormalities
- Neurological Nervous
- Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move
- Eyes abnormalities
- Head, Comb, Wattles, Face, Nostrils, Sinuses, Mount, Beak, Earlobes, abnormalities (except eyes)
- Feathers abnormalities
- Feed Consumption Changes
- Shell quality
- Internal Egg quality
- Causing Agents
- High level of Beta-glucan in Barley
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Digestive Tract. Wet Litter/Manure. Faecal Moisture
- Mainly Affects
- Faecal Moisture Wet litter/manure and Performance
- Synthetic enzymes added in the diet
- Suggested Actions
- Technical assistance recommended
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
- Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition.
- David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition.
- Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
- Paul McMullin. 2004. A Pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
- Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition. Page 21
- Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.
- Gail Damerow 1994. The chicken Health Handbook.