The mildly virulent clinical group results from infection by low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus with low mortality and mild respiratory disease or drops in egg production. Mortality is usually less than 5% and is typically in older birds.
Avian Influenza Low Pathogenic (LPAI) Mildly Virulent in Laying Hens
Observed Clinical Signs Happenings
Visibly sick birds
- Few visibly sick birds some times
- Egg production declines gradually or rapidly
- Low mortality or increases gradually
- Mortality is usually less than 5%, and is typically in older birds
- Skinny body (Poor body fleshing condition)
- Mild respiratory disease
- Respiratory signs spread slow or fast
Avian Influenza Low Pathogenic (LPAI) Mildly Virulent in Laying Hens in Laying Hens DOES NOT exhibit or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:
- Egg production declines rapidly
- High mortality or increases rapidly
- Dead birds: Good body fleshing condition
- Many visibly sick birds
- Flock behaviour activity change
- Droppings abnormalities
- Neurological Nervous
- Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, ataxia
- Eyes abnormalities
- Head, Comb, Wattles, Face, Nostrils, Sinuses, Mount, Beak, Ear lobes, abnormalities (except eyes)
- Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression
- Feed Consumption Changes
- Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, Another feed brand)
- Shell quality defects
- Internal Egg defects
- Causing Agents
- Viral infection (Influenza virus Orthomyxoviridae), genus Influenza virus A
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Respiratory and reproductive systems
- Bird to bird, contaminated water and objects from infected birds. The virus is transmitted by direct contact between infected and susceptible birds or indirect contact through aerosol droplets or exposure to virus-contanminated fomites. The virus is excreted from the nares, mouth, conjunctiva, and cloaca of infected bird into the environment because the virus replication in the respiratory, intestinal, renal, and/or reproductive organs.
- Mainly Affects
- Liveability and egg production
- Biosecurity and hygiene programs and an 'All-in/All-out' approach to production. Vaccination with Inactivated H5 and H7 vaccine and a fowl pox-AI hemagglutinin (H5) recombinant vaccine (rFP-AI-H5).
- Suggested Actions
- Can be managed with vaccination programs
- Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
- Veterinary intervention is recommended
- Can be managed with vaccination programs.
- This is a notifiable disease, veterinary intervention is essential. It is advisable that you run DTECT again to ensure you have answered all the questions correctly. If you suspect that you may have this disease please contact your local authorities immediately.
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page 167
David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 196
Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.
Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.