Avian Intestinal Spirochaetosis Bra ...

Avian Intestinal Spirochaetosis Brachyspira species infection in Laying Hens

Avian Intestinal Spirochaetosis Brachyspira species infection in Laying Hens

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

Egg Drop

  • Egg production declines gradually ( B. intermedia, B. pilosicoli and B. alvinipulli  )
  • Reduced egg production (B. intermedia, B. pilosicoli and B. alvinipulli  )
  • A slight reduction in egg production  (B. intermedia)
  • 5% reduction in egg production (B. pilosicoli) and or B. alvinipulli )
  • Significantly fewer eggs (B. intermedia)

Droppings

  • Feces smeared on feathers around the vent
  • Dirty feathers with droppings around the vent or Pasty vents
  • Intermittent chronic diarrhea, which typically may be seen in 5-20% of a flock ( B. intermedia, B. pilosicoli)
  • Wet droppings with the increased serum content of protein, lipid, carotenoids and bilirubin (B. intermedia)
  • Increased fecal water content ( B. intermedia, B. pilosicoli and B. alvinipulli  )
  • Increased fecal fat content (B. intermedia)
  • The ceca were gassy and the contents were frothy, fluid and pale (B. pilosicoli)
  • Slimy, wet, frothy faeces (B. intermedia)
  • Pasty vents (B. alvinipulli )
  • Feces may be yellowish-brown, mucoid and/or foamy, which increases in both lipid and water (around 15%) content.
  • Experimental infection resulted in yellow, golden or orange cecal droppings.

Feathers

  • Feces smeared on feathers around the vent ("pasty vents")  (B. alvinipulli )
  • Dirty or Pasty vents or feathers with droppings around the vent (B. intermedia, B. pilosicoli)

Shell quality

  • Eggshell stained with faeces or droppings
  • Dirty fecal-stained eggshells (B. alvinipulli )
  • Egg weight reduced
  • Egg significantly lighter eggs (B. intermedia)
  • Eggs from infected hens become stained with faeces,  (B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia)

Internal Egg Quality

  • Paler yolks (B. intermedia)
  • Yolk colour decreased or yolk discolouration or paler yolks (B. intermedia)
  • Yolk colour variable
  • In some instances or sometimes it is difficult to detect internal egg quality

Avian Intestinal Spirochaetosis Brachyspira species infection in Laying Hens in Laying Hens  show, exhibit, or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

ALWAYS

NEVER

SOMETIMES

Egg drop

  •  

 

 

Egg production declines rapidly

 

  •  

 

Egg production drops gradually

  •  

 

 

Mortality above the standard

 

  •  

 

Visibly sick birds

 

  •  

 

Flock behaviour activity change

 

  •  

 

Droppings abnormalities

  •  

 

 

Respiratory abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Neurological Nervous

 

  •  

 

Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move

 

  •  

 

Eyes abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Head: Comb Wattles Face Nostrils Sinuses Mount Beak Earlobes (except eyes)

 

  •  

 

Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression

 

  •  

 

Feathers abnormalities

  •  

 

  • *

Feed Consumption Changes

 

  •  

 

Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)

 

  •  

 

Shell quality

  •  

 

 

Internal Egg quality

  •  

 

  • *

*Sometimes has not been observed or measured the shell quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed or measured the internal egg quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed the feathers abnormalities (dirty feathers around the vent) yet or depend on the course time of the disease

 

 

Causing Agents
Bacterial Intestinal Infection. Brachyspira intermedia. Brachyspira pilosicoli. Brachyspira alvinipulli.
Affected Systems/Organs
Digestive System. Large Intestine, ceca.
Spread
Transmission via arthropods, droppings
Mainly Affects
Egg Production and Egg Quality
Solution
Drug therapy. Vectors control. Biosecurity
Suggested Actions
  • Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
  • Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
  • Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
  • Veterinary intervention is recommended

Impact on Egg quality

1

Impact on Liveability

0


Impact on Production

2

Overall Economic Impact

2



  1. Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. Page 929
  2. David E. Swayne. 2013. Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 1001
  3. Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition. 245

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