The "mild to moderate clinical disease" spectrum is seen particularly in association with strains of Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira alvinipulli.
These infections tend to be associated with diarrhea and/or reduced egg production, but cecal changes are mild or inapparent.
Infections with Brachyspira intermedia in laying hens shows increased in fecal fat content, developed slimy, wet, frothy feces or hard wet droppings and produces significantly fewer eggs.
Brachyspira pilosicoli was associated with a reduction in egg production, diarrhea in up to 25%, wet droppings, feces smeard on feathers around the vent ('pasty vents'), lethargy and depression.
Brachyspira alvinipulli was associated where 5% of the hens had wet feces, clinical diarrhea, pasty vents and produced dirty, fecal-stained eggshell. Experimental infection resulted in yellow, golden or orange cecal droppings.
- Causing Agents
- Bacterial Intestinal Infection. Brachyspira intermedia. Brachyspira pilosicoli. Brachyspira alvinipulli.
- Affected Systems/Organs
- Digestive System. Large Intestine, ceca.
- Transmission via arthropods, droppings
- Mainly Affects
- Egg Production and Egg Quality
- Drug therapy. Vectors control. Biosecurity
- Suggested Actions
- Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
- Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
- Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
- Veterinary intervention is recommended
Impact on Egg quality
Impact on Liveability
Impact on Production
Overall Economic Impact
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Mark Pattison, Paul F. McMullin, Janet M. Bradbury. Dennis J. Alexander. 2008. Poultry Diseases. 6th Edition.
Paul McMullin. 2004. A pocket Guide to Poultry Health and Disease. First Edition.
Steven Leeson, John D. Summers. 2008. Commercial Poultry Nutrition. Third Edition.
Donald D. Bell, Williams D. Weaver. 2009. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. Fifth Edition.