Avian Metapneumovirus Infection Rhi ...

Avian Metapneumovirus Infection Rhinotracheitis (Swollen Head Syndrome SHS) in Laying Hens

Avian Metapneumovirus Infection Rhinotracheitis (Swollen Head Syndrome SHS) in Laying Hens

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

Egg drop

  • Egg production drops gradually
  • In some cases, egg drop may be not detected

Visibly sick birds

  • Few visibly sick birds
  • Usually, less than 4% of the flock are affected.

Mortality

  • Low mortality or increases gradually
  • Mortality rarely exceeds 2%

Dead Birds

  • Skinny body (Poor body fleshing condition)

Respiratory

  • Respiratory signs spread fast
  • Widespread respiratory signs are usually present

Neurological /Nervous

  • As a result of secondary E. coli infection
  • Torticollis
  • Cerebral disorientation
  • Opisthotonus

Head Comb Wattles Face Nostrils Sinuses Mount Beak Earlobes

  • Swelling of the Head
  • Swelling of the periorbital and infraorbital sinuses

Body Parts (Neck wings breast abdomen shanks legs hocks feet joints vent skin)

  • Laying hens may also present with prolapsed oviducts due to violent coughing

Shell quality

  • This infection may also affect the quality of eggs
  • Pale or loss of colour in brown-shelled eggs
  • Misshapen eggs

Avian Metapneumovirus Infection Rhinotracheitis (Swollen Head Syndrome SHD) in Laying Hens show, exhibit, or manifest any of the following clinical signs happenings:

Observed Clinical Signs Happenings

ALWAYS

NEVER

SOMETIMES

Egg drop

  •  

 

 

Egg production declines rapidly

 

  •  

 

Egg production drops gradually

  •  

 

 

Mortality above the standard

  •  

 

 

Low mortality or increases gradually

  •  

 

 

High mortality or increases rapidly

 

  •  

 

Dead birds

  •  

 

 

Dead birds in Good bodily condition

 

  •  

 

Dead birds in Poor bodily  condition

  •  

 

 

Visibly sick birds

  •  

 

 

Few visibly sick birds

  •  

 

 

Many visibly sick birds

 

  •  

 

Flock behaviour activity change

 

  •  

 

Droppings abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Respiratory abnormalities

  •  

 

 

Respiratory signs spread fast

  •  

 

 

Respiratory signs spread slow

 

  •  

 

Neurological Nervous

  •  

 

  • *

Lameness or unusual movements, incoordination, reluctance to move

 

  •  

 

Eyes abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Head: Comb Wattles Face Nostrils Sinuses Mount Beak Earlobes (except eyes)

  •  

 

 

Body Parts (Neck, wings, breast, abdomen, shanks, legs, hocks, feet, joints, vent, and skin, abnormalities), skinny body, retarded growth, weight depression

  •  

 

  • *

Feathers abnormalities

 

  •  

 

Feed Consumption Changes

 

  •  

 

Diet or Feed Changes (Recent Feed delivery, Recent formulation /diet, Other silo or improper storage, another feed brand)

 

  •  

 

Shell quality

  •  

 

  • *

Internal Egg quality

 

  •  

 

* Sometimes has not been observed or measured the neurological or nervous changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed the Body parts abnormalities  (prolapsed oviducts) yet or depend on the course time of the disease

*Sometimes has not been observed or measured the shell quality changes yet or inadequacy of monitoring systems, and even the course time of the disease

 

 

Causing Agents
Avian metapneumovirus infection. Avian Metapneumoviruses are members of the subfamily Pneumoviridae, belonging to the family Paramixoviridae
Affected Systems/Organs
Respiratory, Reproductive and Neurological System
Spread
Transmission is rapid through aerosols via the respiratory route. Transmission from parents is uncertain. Contaminated objects.
Mainly Affects
Egg production, Egg quality and Liveability
Solution
Control respiratory stressors. Multivitamins. Good management practices. Good biosecurity.
Suggested Actions
  • Can be confirmed with clinical signs and gross lesions
  • Can be managed with feed additives, off-the-shelf medications
  • Diagnosis should be confirmed with rapid assays and/or a certified laboratory
  • Veterinary intervention is recommended

Impact on Egg quality

1

Impact on Liveability

1


Impact on Production

1

Overall Economic Impact

1



  1. Y.M. Saif.2008.Disease of Poultry. 12th Edition. page 103
  2. David E. Swayne. 2013.  Diseases of Poultry 13th Edition. page 115

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